alpaca
Alpaca Huacaya: Breed Overview

A very lively, lively and friendly animal Alpaca is ready to impress people with its kind look and such temperament that you involuntarily start falling in love with this animal. Alpaca is unique not only for its character, but also for its special fur.

Experienced knitters have already encountered the thread that Alpaca wool gives, and were able to appreciate it. The pleasure, of course, is expensive to purchase a knitted blouse from Alpaca thread, and yarn is not so easy to find.

Let’s take a closer look at the animal

The animal lives in South America and lives in families, we can meet and see it only in zoos. The zoo is a special place, there are different animals gathered from all over the planet, so you need to get acquainted and see first-hand animals outlandish for our country.

Alpaca is not considered a wild animal, as it was domesticated by the Indians 5,000 years ago. Now this is an animal for the natives of America, like a cow or a ram for us. Alpaca lives only in the Andes, unfortunately, it was not possible to breed it in other regions, since the animal requires a special microclimate, which is present only in the Andes.

Alpaca is unique in that it has 24 shades, a special coat that is not found in any animal kingdom. Alpaca also differs in two main types – Suri, which has a long pile, similar to pigtails, and Wakaya, the wool, which looks more like sheep’s wool.

For humans, the wool of this unique animal is of great value, as it has a layer of fat and Alpaca wool products do not get dirty for a long time. But to buy wool is not so simple, and it will cost a lot. Especially in the price of wool of cubs. Soft, hypoallergenic, waterproof fur retains heat 7 times more than sheep’s wool.

But you should not go to the zoo not for the sake of fur, but to watch this amazing animal, touch it. Yes, this is allowed in the zoo.

goat
Goat Milking Process: Technology, Milking Time

The process of milking a goat at first glance seems simple. But when buying these animals for a household, you need to know the basic rules of the procedure and the treatment of pets. Then there will be a lot of milk and the goats will not hurt. About how to milk a goat, we will tell in this article.

Milking preparation

Goat milking begins after lambing. Babies are kept separate from their mothers, using milk to feed them. Farmers have several ways to milk a goat. Usually goats are milked after weaning at the age of 3 months. How many times to milk, decide from the milk of animals. The procedure is carried out at first a couple of times a day, then only in the morning. Goats give milk for up to 50 days, after which they need to be coated.

Some farmers practice single milking during suction, when the offspring are kept partly without queens. This method is advised to use with abundant nutrition of animals, when the offspring grows rapidly. It is better to give up only if the uterus has one kid. How many of them are in the lamb of each uterus should be noted in a special diary. Wool and downy breeds do not milk.
Goats are only cleaned with clean hands. Before milking a goat, it is necessary to cut the hair on the udder. They advise milking in special machines where there is a fixing device. In the machine, the uterus can be quietly milked, and in front it should have a feeding trough with top dressing.

Before milking, the udder of the animal is washed with warm water, wiped dry with a clean towel. Then you need to alternately massage each part of the udder. In the first trickles of milk there are a lot of bacteria, so they are poured into a separate container. How to milk a goat? As well as cows – fist, alternately squeezing the nipples from top to bottom. After the procedure is completed, the udder of the goats is again massaged and lubricated with petroleum jelly. To obtain large quantities of milk and for the sake of peace of the animal, milking must always be carried out at the same time.

Milking skill

There are three ways to milk a goat, regardless of how many times they are milked per day. The most common in individual households milking method is “side”. To do this, take the nipple at the base with the index finger and thumb, and squeeze until milk begins to stand out. Then, with rhythmic movements, they squeeze the product, separately merging the first jets. In the work, you can include the little finger and ring finger. The last trickles of milk are very fatty, so milk must be completely removed.

There is another, faster way of milking – “Moldavian”. It is found on farms with a large population. Before milking a goat, you will need a special machine. It is made of three shields (two in length are 1.7 meters long, the third is slightly longer). The first shields are placed parallel to each other at a distance of 1.3 meters, and the last is fixed on a rack and a hook is attached to it. During the procedure, the animal is driven inside and the machine is blocked with a hook. The head of the animal is in a closed triangle. Animals are milked, holding the udder with one hand. Then it is taken with both hands and pressed towards the nipples, receiving milk. The method is more suitable for primitives that can resist the procedure.

The disadvantage of the “Moldavian” method is its lack of hygiene. But the goat can be milked in just two minutes. The last, “combined” milking method is very simple. First, the milk is squeezed from the crown, and then the remaining milk is removed with a finger.

With any method of milking, you need to remember that it is forbidden to sharply pull on the nipples or udder. Stopping or slowing down the rhythm leads to a decrease in milk yield. Also, to avoid mastitis, milk should always be completely removed. Well, how exactly to milk a goat, each breeder decides for himself.

How many times can a goat be milked

How many times to milk a goat per day, each breeder decides for himself. To do this, take into account its breed, age, saturation of the diet and the farmer’s employment in the economy. Usually animals are milked 2-3 times a day at the same time so that the milk yield is not small. It is proven that being late for milking by only 3 hours reduces milk yield by half a liter.

In the summer, when most of the time goats spend on the pasture and eat a lot of fresh grass, the animals have an overflow of the udder and they give a lot of milk. In the summer, milked in the morning, afternoon and evening. At this time, with one individual, milk yield increases by half a liter.

In spring, winter and autumn, juicy feed is usually scarce. Milking is carried out in the morning and in the evening, when animals are brought to the pen. How much milk yield will also depend on the massage of the udder, the density of milk, the quality of the emptying of the udder, the presence of hardenings in it. To increase milk yield, goats are given milk-fed food – turnips or tree branches. In winter, the diet should have hay – it depends on the amount of product. Also increase the yield of root crops.

After lambing

Dairy queens begin to milk after lambing immediately after colostrum ends. How many liters the animal’s productivity cannot be said for sure, this parameter needs to be studied over several days.

The kids are taken away from the mother by drinking her milk. So the method allows you to quickly milk the animals and they give a large amount of good milk. The disadvantage is the difficulty of feeding the kids.

The combined method is to kill goats after lambing. The kids are temporarily separated from the uterus, part of the milk is removed, and then the offspring are allowed. During jigging, kids need good quality hay, mineral additives and concentrates. The method is used no earlier than 6 weeks of age.

wheelbarrows
Wheelbarrow For Transporting Hay For Your Alpacas

In the country or in the garden for productive work, you need to quickly and accurately move inventory, equipment, various items. Here a garden wheelbarrow comes to the rescue, which, due to its mobility and carrying capacity, greatly simplifies the task.

The structure of a garden cart

A garden wheelbarrow, like a construction cart, consists of wheels, a body, handles, a common frame. Do not give preference to more sophisticated models, do not forget: the main task of this type of equipment is to transport materials. Let’s dwell on each component of the cart:

  • Wheels more often include a rubber tire and a metal disc. Special attention should be paid to this component of the cart. Rinse and lubricate the wheels constantly so that they last as long as possible.
  • The body is the “core” of any cart. It is in it that the materials are transported. Do not flirt with the volume: it can reduce mobility, carrier patency in general.
  • Pens represent the conductor of man and technology directly. Tips should be comfortable, rubberized and, most importantly, not too long, thin.
  • A frame is a set of bolts, metal pipes connecting the previous components. Here, stainless steel or the use of aluminum alloys is welcome.

Already at the familiarization stage two questions arise: what types of carriers are there, what are the features of the models.

Types of Garden Wheelbarrows

To begin with, we reveal that carts are classified according to three main characteristics, including various positions.

Body – its shape and material

At first glance, it may seem that all bodies are identical or, at least, do not have clearly visible. This is not entirely true. Manufacturers have long agreed that the most effective are three types of body:

  • rectangle with smooth corners;
  • trapezoid, tapering to the bottom;
  • quadrangle with an oval bottom.

Each of the varieties does not affect the work process. In practice, metal alloys or wood are more often used. The second option is more suitable to complement the interior, but not for long work.

Metals are different. It is advisable to buy stainless steel carts. Other materials, such as plastics, are also used in everyday life. However, it is fragile; such a carrier will not even serve the owner for two or three months.

Purposes

It’s easier here. There are two types of wheelbarrows:

  1. garden;
  2. construction.

The second – lifting, heavy, bulky. Garden “carriers” are famous for mobility, but less stability.

Number of wheels

One-wheeled and two-wheeled garden carts are more common. There are simply no drastic differences, but let’s look at each view in more detail.

  • unicycle – maneuverable; are used in gardens, fields, where the paths for movement are narrow. But there is a clear minus: poor stability on an inhomogeneous surface;
  • two-wheeled win on uneven terrain. This type of equipment is suitable for girls: cargo is transported more easily. The negative point is less convenient control compared to unicycle.

How to choose a cart and what to pay attention to?

In the market in the public domain a huge range of equipment for the garden. You will find scoops, secateurs, shoulder blades, rakes, sickles and landing cones. These tools are cheap, small in size, of the same type, so there are usually no problems with a choice.

Things are different with wheelbarrows. After all, these devices are expensive, bulky, designed for a long service. Therefore, when buying universal “carriers” you need to be especially vigilant. The following parameters are important:

  • carrying capacity; a characteristic common and reevaluated at the same time. The law of proportionality applies here: the more the load weighs, the more difficult it is to move. But, as mentioned above, the owners of garden carts are women, so that peak load capacity (optimal from 45 to 100 kg) is not even used halfway.
  • dimension; here the question is of an exceptional technical plan: can your cart fit corny into a garage or squeeze through trees and bushes;
  • wheels ease of use depends on the parameter. The larger the diameter, the width of the wheels, the stronger the carrier is on the ground. Take this parameter seriously if you buy a one-wheeled cart;
  • handles; “Limbs” of the cart should be comfortable. Pay attention to the thickness: too thin ones run the risk of breaking during the work, and too thick ones are hard to take – the hands will quickly get tired. Handles should be rubberized for better grip; too long are not welcome: thereby increasing the size of the carrier, which will interfere with the work with plants;
  • body volume; the indicator is doubtful, overrated, as well as carrying capacity. Manufacturers strive to put impressive numbers on the billboard, thereby attracting and attracting customers. The problem is that different materials behave in the body in their own way: you can drive a wheelbarrow to the top with the earth, and flower pots will fit an equal amount regardless of the capacity of the body; branches completely leave spaces between each other.

Appearance and other selection parameters are subjective. Each acts on the basis of their own tastes.

Wheelbarrow plays an important role in the economy, garden plot. This tool can greatly simplify work in the garden.

sheep
Sheep Care: Instructions, Tips

What is the secret of raising and raising sheep in the household? The main task of the farmer is to ensure that for the life of these animals it is necessary to create conditions identical to their natural environment. The breeders, however, sound simple, talking about how to care for sheep, they also warn of additional factors that should be given attention. What does a man need to know if, like our great-grandfathers, he encroached on a magnificent fleece, warm sheep’s skin and tasty meat?

Breed

First you have to decide on the breed. It affects little in terms of livestock care and mainly determines the resources received from sheep and the volume of meat (8 resource areas). It is worth noting the following breeds:

  • Fat tail (meat-greasy breed). Fatty animals are naturally given the so-called fatty tail – a fat sack in the tail. They are suitable for the extraction of fat.
  • Romanovskaya (meat-meat direction) is the most common and resilient. It is appreciated for its skin and coat, which are used to make light and warm clothes. It gets along well in the middle zone of Russia.
  • Stavropol (wool breed). Strongly knit animals with a thick skin and a large volume of wool. Used for the preparation of wool and fat.
  • Kuibyshevskaya (meat direction). Fine-woolly, fleshy and prolific representatives. Actual breed of Russian farmers selling sheep meat.

Livestock breeders may also prefer crosses – crossing 1, 2 or even 3 breeds for better productivity.

Herd

Sheep are herd animals that must graze together. They are not distinguished by a special mind, sharpness of perception and memory; shy enough. They do not have a clear hierarchy in the herd.

Everything is limited by the fact that the role of leader is played by a large ram, a donkey (in the southern regions) or a goat (they are often raised in parallel with sheep), sometimes the uterus.

These are conservative animals that are difficult to get used to with new conditions.

The number of goals that can be successfully looked after at a hobby level is 30. Over time, this figure can be increased to an entrepreneurial scale – 500 pcs. In this case, profitability will rush up, and livestock maintenance will begin to bring tangible benefits.

The average numbers that suit most farmers are 130-150 sheep. At the same time, in the summer time the number of cattle will increase to 190 units, and in the winter it will drop to 120.

Therefore, by spring, during the breeding season, on average, about 100 sheep remain “on hand”.

Using the example of this quantity (100 pcs.), We give the following proportion, which must be observed by the farmer:

  • the three rams producing
  • 40 rams for slaughter
  • the rest are lamb-sheep that will be kittens in early spring

Under the butcher’s knife are mainly male animals. Lambs are necessary to maintain livestock reproduction. They give birth 2 times a year (gestational age 5 months) for 2-4 lamb. Clog the uterus after 4 years of “service.”
timetable

An ideal option for sheep breeding is a pasture-stall method, in which animals combine walks in the fields and life under the roof. Their reproduction will depend on this – a sedentary lifestyle has a bad effect on offspring. Exits to freedom must be subject to a strict schedule:

  • 5:00 – first transfer to the pasture
  • 12:00 – return to the stall to get drunk
  • 15:00 – departure to the fields
  • 23:00 – return to the night

For small farms, strictly adhering to this schedule is not necessary.

Sheep housing

By nature, sheep are pasture animals. Almost all breeds feel more favorable in dry climatic zones. They should walk all year round. However, in our latitudes it is impossible to ensure that sheep graze 365 days a year.

Therefore, despite the fact that they transfer enclosed spaces worse than others, a person must take care of the “living space” – to acquire land and build a cattle or a shepherd. This is the place where the herd will return after pasture, winter, and also kitten.

Sheep dwellings should be as close as possible to their natural habitat: walls made of wood, clay floors, the room is well ventilated (without drafts), dry and illuminated (windows and electric light).

The interior of the barn is simple: nurseries, feeders, partitions. Its area is determined at the rate of 400 m2 per 200 livestock units (an adult requires 2 m2 of free area, a lamb – 1 m2).

Usually the construction plan is L-shaped with windows for adequate lighting. It is divided into two parts (for reared sheep and not reared). In the center of the building there is a room for staff.

It is advisable to build an additional extension, where sheep can be placed separately so that they do not interfere with the females during the period of sexual activity decline.

On cold days, indoor heat is maintained from the sheep themselves. In winter, depending on the temperature (if below -10 ° C), the stall is sheathed with insulation. Sometimes a furnace is installed so that the lambs do not freeze: their wool is still not enough to warm themselves.

How to care for sheep at home, if sheep walking is difficult due to lack of pasture? In this case, the farmer will acquire an aviary – a fenced area in the open air adjacent to the shepherd.

Of the additional buildings, it is advisable to erect a covered corral where the herd will go to the watering place, as well as to shelter from the rain. Sheep does not tolerate dampness.

Food

Sheep are herbivores. On average, they eat 2 kg of hay per day. They also eat oats – 500 g per day. You can feed with barley or bran, but not for long, due to the fact that animals quickly gain weight. The most nutritious are clover or bean crops. Unsuitable will be sedge and chintik. Combined feeds are expensive. They are used exclusively on an industrial scale for sheep breeding.

Combined feeds are expensive. They are used exclusively on an industrial scale for sheep breeding.

Animal food must be natural. Eating sheep in summer is grass that grows on pasture. Free range makes up for the lack of vitamins.

This is enough for their healthy development. However, the farmer must make sure that iodized salt (15 g per individual) and chalk as a source of calcium are present in the sheep’s diet.

Experts who understand how to care for sheep in winter argue that in winter you should stock up on hay at the rate of 30 tons per 150 heads. Newborn Lambs Sometimes a farmer is forced to monitor the nutrition of young animals. The lamb of a sheep depends on the breed. For example, a Romanov sheep brings about 4 lambs at a time, however, it is able to feed only two. Therefore, the breeder must take care of those newborns who will be short of food.

For feeding, cow or goat milk is used. After 4 months, the lambs are brave of the uterus and accustomed to independent “adult” nutrition. It is important to keep feeders and drinkers clean.

Animals concern this issue very scrupulously and will not begin to eat up the leftover remains and drink muddy water.

Wool

Trimming animals is carried out once a year in May or June. Sheep overgrown in a year can hardly tolerate molting – the wool falls off in pieces, causing pain to them, rolling into tangles. Sent to slaughter also first go through the process of cutting.

The procedure is performed by two people, one of which holds the individual, and the second removes the hair from the animal.

Health

The herd lives according to the law “the strongest survives.” Therefore, if a sheep is sick, it is easier to send for slaughter than to engage in treatment. However, the farmer should not throw it on its own. There are certain rules for caring for the health of sheep:

  • Inoculate animals 2 times a year (the veterinary service deals with this issue).
  • Before leaving for the winter for stall maintenance, sanitize the room and equipment.
  • The second disinfection procedure is carried out in the spring. All newcomers “newcomers” should be quarantined for a month and only then allowed into the enclosures.

Most often, sheep suffer from helminth infections and ailments associated with suppuration of hooves. This is due to the poor tolerance of damp areas, lowlands, swampy pastures.

Experts advise keeping the livestock in dry conditions, cutting hooves before the start of the grazing season (spring). From the worms the folk method helps: vodka diluted with water (1: 1) with the addition of 3 heads of garlic (pour it into the animal inside).

Antiparasitic pharmacy drugs also save. To maintain the health of the sheep, invite a veterinarian to them at least 2 times a year.

Resources

The mass of an adult ram can reach 180 kg. With the right selection of meat breed, it turns out to help him gain up to 60% of meat and 6 kg of wool. Slaughter of an animal occurs at the age of 1-2 years, if it is not neutered. And sheep’s fluff can be used to make yarn and create clothes, quilts, felt boots. Chubby animals provide valuable fat that is good for men’s health.

Among farmers, sheep and sheep are considered moderately unpretentious. They are well accustomed to humans and are ideal for small farms measuring 10-15 hectares.

They are valued for their small size (after slaughter, the carcass is convenient to cut, there are no problems with storing a relatively small amount of meat) and resources that can be obtained from one animal (wool, lamb, milk, fat). Caring for these animals will not take much time; both men and women can take care of them.